KNEC November 2021 DICT module 3 Management information system questions and answers

KNEC November 2021 DICT module 3 Management information system questions and answers

1a)Outline two challenges of emerging trends in management information systems (2 Marks)

  1. Security and Privacy Concerns:

As organizations increasingly rely on digital information systems to store and manage sensitive data, security and privacy have become major concerns. Hackers and cybercriminals are constantly looking for ways to exploit vulnerabilities in information systems, leading to the theft of confidential information, financial loss, and damage to reputation. Emerging trends such as cloud computing, mobile devices, and Internet of Things (IoT) pose additional security and privacy challenges, as they introduce new attack vectors and increase the complexity of the IT infrastructure. To address these challenges, organizations need to invest in robust cybersecurity measures, such as encryption, access controls, and intrusion detection systems.

  1. Data Management and Analysis:

Emerging trends in management information systems are generating large amounts of data, which organizations can leverage to gain valuable insights into their operations, customers, and market trends. However, this data deluge also poses challenges for data management and analysis. Organizations must invest in the right tools and technologies to effectively capture, store, process, and analyze large volumes of data in real-time. They must also ensure that the data is accurate, consistent, and up-to-date, as inaccurate data can lead to incorrect decision-making. Furthermore, organizations must develop the skills and expertise to interpret and use the data effectively, which requires a combination of technical and business knowledge.

b)Masomo institute installed a new information system for data processing, explain three guidelines that could be applied to ensure responsible use of the system (6 Marks)

  1. Establish clear policies and procedures:

To ensure responsible use of the new information system, Masomo Institute should establish clear policies and procedures outlining the acceptable and unacceptable uses of the system. These policies should be communicated to all employees and stakeholders, and should cover areas such as data access, data sharing, data storage, and data disposal. The policies should also include guidelines on how to handle confidential and sensitive information, as well as procedures for reporting any security breaches or violations.

  1. Provide appropriate training and support:

Masomo Institute should provide appropriate training and support to employees and stakeholders to ensure they understand how to use the new information system responsibly. This includes training on how to access and use the system, how to input and manage data, and how to report any issues or problems. The training should also cover best practices for data security and privacy, and should emphasize the importance of responsible use of the system.

  1. Conduct regular audits and monitoring:

To ensure responsible use of the information system, Masomo Institute should conduct regular audits and monitoring of the system to detect any security breaches, violations, or other issues. This includes monitoring access logs, reviewing data usage patterns, and conducting regular vulnerability assessments. The audits should be conducted by trained professionals who can identify and respond to any issues or concerns, and should be conducted on a regular basis to ensure ongoing compliance with policies and procedures. Any issues or concerns that are identified should be addressed promptly and appropriately to ensure the integrity and security of the information system.

c) A county government intends to establish information centers. explain three services that are likely to be offered in the centers(6 Marks)

  1. Information and referral services: One of the primary services that an information center is likely to offer is information and referral services. This service is designed to provide the public with accurate and up-to-date information about government programs, services, and resources. The center staff may provide answers to general inquiries, or refer visitors to other agencies or organizations that can provide more specialized assistance.
  2. Community outreach and engagement: Another service that information centers may offer is community outreach and engagement. This service is designed to foster community involvement and engagement with government programs and initiatives. The center may hold workshops, seminars, and other events to educate the public about various government services, as well as to solicit feedback and input from residents about their needs and concerns.
  3. Access to government services and resources: Finally, information centers may also offer access to various government services and resources. For example, the center may provide assistance with applications for government programs, such as social services, health care, or housing assistance. Additionally, the center may offer assistance with obtaining government documents, such as birth certificates, passports, and driver’s licenses. The center staff may also provide guidance on how to navigate government websites, portals, and other online resources.

di) Ujuzi institute engaged John as their ICT project manager. Explain two roles that he could play.(4 Marks)

  1. Planning and Execution of ICT Projects: One of the primary roles of John as the ICT project manager at Ujuzi Institute would be to plan and execute various ICT projects. He would be responsible for identifying the project scope, goals, objectives, timelines, and resources required for each project. John would also ensure that the project is executed within the set timelines and budget while meeting the project’s objectives.
  2. Team Management: Another critical role that John would play is managing the ICT team. He would be responsible for ensuring that the team is well-coordinated and is working towards achieving the project’s objectives. John would also provide technical guidance and support to the team members as they execute the project. Additionally, John would oversee the team’s performance and provide feedback and coaching to ensure that the team is working efficiently and effectively.

ii) Explain two causes of failure to complete an ICT project as scheduled(2 Marks)

  1. Poor Planning and Management: Poor planning and management are significant contributors to project failure. When a project is not well planned, it becomes challenging to manage and execute it within the set timelines. Poor planning may result in underestimated timelines, insufficient resources, unclear project goals and objectives, and inadequate risk management strategies. Similarly, poor project management may result in poor coordination and communication among team members, inadequate supervision, and lack of accountability, which may cause delays and hinder progress towards the project’s completion.
  2. Changing Project Requirements: Another cause of failure to complete an ICT project as scheduled is changing project requirements. During the project’s execution, new project requirements may emerge, or existing ones may change, which may significantly affect the project’s timelines and deliverables. If these changes are not adequately managed, they may cause delays or even derail the project. Additionally, changing requirements may lead to scope creep, which refers to uncontrolled changes or continuous expansion of the project scope, which may lead to budget overruns, resource constraints, and ultimately project failure. Therefore, it is crucial to manage changing project requirements effectively to minimize their impact on project completion timelines.

2a)Explain two circumstances that leads to an effective change programme in an organization through the use of information systems(4 Marks)

  1. Clear communication: Information systems can facilitate clear and effective communication within an organization. During a change program, it is critical that all employees understand the changes that are happening and why they are happening. Information systems can be used to create and distribute clear and consistent messages to all employees, ensuring that everyone is on the same page. This can help to reduce confusion and resistance to change, which can ultimately lead to a more successful change program.
  2. Real-time feedback: Information systems can provide real-time feedback on the progress of a change program. This can help managers to identify issues early on and make adjustments as needed to keep the change program on track. For example, if a new software system is being implemented, the IT team can use analytics tools to monitor how the system is being used and identify any issues or bottlenecks that are affecting productivity. This can help to identify areas where additional training or support may be needed, or where the system itself may need to be adjusted.

bi)Explain social-technical view as used in information systems(2 Marks)

The social-technical view is a perspective that is often used in information systems to understand the relationship between the technical and social components of a system. This view recognizes that information systems are not just technological artifacts, but rather, they are embedded in social contexts and have important social implications.

From a social-technical perspective, an information system is seen as a combination of technical components, such as hardware, software, and data, as well as social components, such as the people who use the system, the organizational context in which the system operates, and the broader social and cultural environment in which the system is situated.

ii)Explain two factors to consider when using information systems for decision making(4 Marks)

  1. Data quality: The quality of the data used in decision making is critical to the accuracy and reliability of the decisions made. Data should be complete, accurate, timely, and relevant to the decision at hand. It is important to verify the source of the data and ensure that it is reliable and trustworthy.
  2. User expertise: The expertise and knowledge of the people using the information system are also critical factors in effective decision making. Users should be trained on how to use the system effectively, as well as how to interpret and analyze the data presented.

d)Viuall company LTD conducts its business globally. Describe two types of information systems the company could use(4 Marks)

  1. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System: An ERP system is a software platform that integrates and manages all of an organization’s core business processes in real-time, including accounting, finance, supply chain, human resources, and customer relationship management. By implementing an ERP system, Viuall Company LTD can streamline and optimize its operations across all its global locations, improve efficiency and collaboration, reduce errors and redundancies, and provide real-time data and analytics for better decision-making. Additionally, an ERP system can help Viuall Company LTD comply with various regulations and standards across different countries, as well as provide a centralized platform for managing global operations.
  2. Global Information System (GIS): A GIS is a type of information system that collects, stores, analyzes, and displays geographic data and information. By using a GIS, Viuall Company LTD can gain insights into various factors that affect its business operations in different regions, such as market trends, demographic data, environmental conditions, and infrastructure. This information can help the company make informed decisions about expanding its business in new regions, identifying new customers and markets, optimizing supply chain logistics, and managing risks and uncertainties. A GIS can also provide real-time data and analytics for better decision-making, as well as facilitate communication and collaboration across different regions and stakeholders.

3a)Outline two differences between critical path method and project evaluation and review technique (PERT) as used in project management(4 Marks)

  1. Approach to Activity Duration Estimation: The primary difference between CPM and PERT is in their approach to activity duration estimation. CPM assumes that activity durations are fixed and can be accurately estimated based on historical data or expert judgment. Therefore, CPM uses a deterministic approach to calculate the critical path and project duration. On the other hand, PERT assumes that activity durations are uncertain and subject to variability due to various factors such as risk and uncertainty. Therefore, PERT uses a probabilistic approach to estimate activity durations based on three estimates: optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic. PERT then calculates the expected activity duration and probability of completing the activity within a certain timeframe. This approach enables project managers to account for uncertainties and risks in project planning and scheduling.
  2. Focus on Critical Activities: Another difference between CPM and PERT is their focus on critical activities. CPM emphasizes the critical path, which is the longest sequence of dependent activities that determine the overall project duration. CPM aims to optimize the critical path by minimizing the duration of critical activities to shorten the overall project duration. PERT, on the other hand, focuses on identifying critical activities that have a high impact on project completion time, regardless of whether they are on the critical path or not. PERT aims to manage critical activities by prioritizing resources and managing risks and uncertainties that could affect their completion. This approach enables project managers to identify and manage risks and uncertainties that could affect project completion time, even if they are not on the critical path.

bi)Describe adaptive system maintenance as used in information systems(2 Marks)

Adaptive system maintenance is a type of maintenance that is performed on an information system to keep it aligned with changing business needs and environmental conditions. It involves making changes to the system to adapt it to new requirements or to improve its performance in response to changes in the business or technology environment.

ii) A technical institute is undertaking an ICT project. Explain two attributes the project should exhibit(4 Marks)

  1. Clear Objectives: The project should have clear and well-defined objectives that are aligned with the strategic goals of the technical institute. This means that the project team should have a clear understanding of what the project is intended to achieve, the scope of the project, and the expected outcomes. The objectives should be measurable and specific, so that progress can be tracked and evaluated throughout the project. By having clear objectives, the project team can ensure that they are working towards a common goal and that all activities are focused on achieving the desired outcomes.
  2. Effective Project Management: The project should be managed effectively to ensure that it is completed on time, within budget, and to the required quality standards. This means that the project team should have a well-defined project plan that includes tasks, timelines, resource requirements, and risk management strategies. The project plan should be regularly reviewed and updated to ensure that it remains relevant and effective throughout the project. Effective project management also requires effective communication and collaboration between the project team, stakeholders, and other relevant parties. By having effective project management, the project team can ensure that the project is completed successfully, and that the technical institute realizes the benefits of the project.

c) Tegeo industries prefer using web based IS project management. Explain three reasons for this preference(6 Marks)

  1. Accessibility and Collaboration: Web-based IS for project management provides easy access to project information and collaboration tools, which allows team members to work together more effectively. Web-based systems enable team members to access project information from anywhere with an internet connection, making it easier to work remotely or across different locations. This accessibility promotes collaboration and increases productivity by enabling team members to share information and work on project tasks together.
  2. Real-time Data: Web-based IS for project management enables real-time tracking and reporting of project data, which provides up-to-date information on project progress, risks, and issues. This allows project managers to make informed decisions quickly and respond to issues in a timely manner. Real-time data also enables project managers to communicate project progress to stakeholders more effectively, which helps to build trust and confidence in the project team and its capabilities.
  3. Cost-effectiveness: Web-based IS for project management is often less expensive than traditional project management tools, such as desktop applications or custom-built solutions. This makes it a more cost-effective option for organizations, especially smaller organizations that may not have the resources to invest in expensive project management tools. Web-based IS also requires less hardware and infrastructure, reducing the need for on-premise IT resources and maintenance. This makes it an attractive option for organizations looking to reduce IT costs and streamline project management processes.

d) Differentiate between functional and management activity approaches to information systems classification(4 Marks)

  1. Functional Approach: The functional approach classifies information systems based on the specific business function they support, such as accounting, human resources, marketing, or operations. This approach emphasizes the specific business processes and activities that the information system is designed to support. Examples of systems that can be classified using this approach include payroll systems, inventory management systems, and customer relationship management systems.
  2. Management Activity Approach: The management activity approach classifies information systems based on the management activities they support, such as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. This approach focuses on the managerial roles that the information system is designed to support. Examples of systems that can be classified using this approach include decision support systems, enterprise resource planning systems, and business intelligence systems.
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