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Child Growth and Development Notes – DPTE

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Number of Pages: 226
Diploma in Primary Teacher Education: Child Growth and Development Notes

COURSE CONTENT
• Definition of terms like pre-natal stage, infancy, development and growth.
• Nature versus nature controversy.
• History and significance of child development study.
• Theories of child growth and development.
• Pre –natal development and birthing process.
• Environmental influences on pre-natal development.
• Brain development and its function.
• Perceptual and physical development during infancy.
• Language development in infants.
• Social and emotional development during infancy.
• Moral and spiritual development.
• Cognitive development.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
a) Define terms like pre-natal stage, infancy, development and growth.
b) Discuss the nature versus nature controversy.
c) Explain the history and significance of child development study.
d) Discuss theories of child growth and development.
e) Describe pre –natal development and birthing process.
f) Explain environmental influences on pre-natal development.
g) Discuss brain development and its function.
h) Explain perceptual and physical development during infancy.
i) Describe language development in infants.
j) Discuss social and emotional development during infancy.
k) Explain moral and spiritual development.
l) Describe Cognitive development.

Category:

Description

DIPLOMA IN PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION
CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT NOTES
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
PURPOSE OF THE COURSE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
COURSE DESCRIPTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 TEACHING/LEARNING METHODOLOGIES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
COURSE ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
MODULE ORGANIZATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
COURSE CONTENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
COURSE OBJECTIVES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
LESSON ONE: INTRODUCTION TO PRENATAL AND INFANCY DEVELOPMENT ……………………………………………… 8
LESSON TWO: HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT STUDY …………………………………………..12
LESSON THREE: THEORIES OF CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………..15
LESSON FOUR: PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH. ……………………………………………………………………………….21
LESSON FIVE: THE BIRTHING PROCESS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….25
LESSON SIX: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT. …………………………………………….31
LESSON SEVEN: BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND ITS FUNCTIONS ………………………………………………………………………41
LESSON EIGHT: PERCEPTUAL AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING INFANCY ………………………………………44
LESSON NINE: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS ………………………………………………………………………………..55
LESSON TEN: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY ………………………………………………………….60
LESSON ELEVEN: MORAL AND SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………………………..71 LESSON TWELVE: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT – PIAGET’S SENSORI-MOTOR SUBSTAGES. ………………………….76
Course content ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………80
Teaching/learning methodologies …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..80
Course assessment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………80
UNIT CODE: BEC 123 UNIT TITLE: CHILD GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT II LESSON ONE: EARLY CHILDHOOD .81
LESSON TWO: MIDDLE CHILDHOOD ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………81
LESSON THREE: LATE CHILDHOOD (ADOLESCENCE) ……………………………………………………………………………………81
LESSON FOUR: CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES ………………………………………………………………………………..81
LESSON FIVE: ADULTHOOD ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………82 Lesson Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..82
Knowledge…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………83
The roles nature and nurture play in the development of a young child…………………………………………………………………………83
How the various domains influence development during early childhood ……………………………………………………………………..83
The socio-cultural influences on child development ………………………………………………………………………………………………….84 How the brain develops during early childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..85
How important nutrition is to healthy and proper childhood development …………………………………………………………………….85
Early Childhood Development: Cognitive domain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………85
The process of language development in early childhood …………………………………………………………………………………………..86
The method of discipline that works ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….86 The Self and Personality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………88
How, and when, young children develop a sense of self …………………………………………………………………………………………….88
How personalities develop ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………88 Socialization and Play ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….92
Why children play ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….92

The different kinds of play behaviours ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………93 How parents can encourage non-violent play …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..94
Moral development during childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..96
How children learn values …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….97
Gender Identity …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..98
How a gender identity develops …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….98 The differences between the genders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………99
The socio-cultural influences on gender development ……………………………………………………………………………………………….99
Looking through the eyes of the system of supports ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
The influence does the media have on early childhood development …………………………………………………………………………. 100
The influence does economic status and conditions have on early childhood development ……………………………………………. 100
The effects doe’s social class has on parenting and child rearing ………………………………………………………………………………. 101
Spiritual Growth ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
Action research in early childhood development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
Perspectives on child development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
How child development is described from the perspective of the lifespan approach …………………………………………………….. 108
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
Learning Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
The roles do nature and nurture play in the development of a child …………………………………………………………………………… 110
The socio-cultural influences on child development ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
The physical changes during childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111 The cognitive changes during childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
The socio-emotional changes during childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
Childhood Development: Physical and cognitive domains ………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
The physical developmental changes during middle childhood…………………………………………………………………………………. 112
Childhood Development: socio-emotional domain …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113 The process of socio-emotional development in childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
How children develop a sense of self …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
How children develop a sense of moral and ethical behaviour ………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
The influence do friendships have on healthy socio-emotional development in childhood …………………………………………….. 115
How gender influences development during childhood …………………………………………………………………………………………… 115 Issues and challenges in childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
How sports influence children …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
The influence does exercise has on childhood development …………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
How learning disabilities influence childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
The effect Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has on children …………………………………………………………….. 117 The role and nature of aggression in children ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
How children become obese……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
Who bullies are, and effects they have on other people……………………………………………………………………………………………. 119
The effect divorce has on children ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
Looking through the eyes of the systems of support ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
The importance is the family in child development …………………………………………………………………………………………………120
The roles and influence do peers have on child development ……………………………………………………………………………………. 120
How to resist peer pressure ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121 How parents influence moral development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
How parents influence pro-social behaviours ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
The role the school plays in the healthy development of children ……………………………………………………………………………… 123
The role that economics play in the healthy development of children ………………………………………………………………………… 123
Action research in middle childhood development …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124 Spiritual Growth ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
Research Lessons and Issues ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
Perspectives on child development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
How child development described from the perspective of the lifespan approach ………………………………………………………… 129
How the key issues and questions in developmental psychology relate to child development ………………………………………… 130 How each of the six theoretical perspectives on human development explains child development ………………………………….. 131
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
Learning Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
Lesson Overview: Developmental changes during adolescence ………………………………………………………………………………… 135
The roles nature and nurture play in the development of an adolescent ………………………………………………………………………. 135 The socio-cultural influences on adolescent development………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
Looking through the eyes of an adolescent ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
How adolescents deal with change in their lives …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
Adolescent Development: Physical domain …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
The physical changes during adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137 How important body image to adolescents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
The general theories about eating disorders …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
Adolescent Development: Cognitive domain…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 139
The process of cognitive development during adolescence ………………………………………………………………………………………. 140
“Adolescent egocentrism”, and the role it plays n cognitive and social development ……………………………………………………. 140 Social Cognition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
How we make sense of the behaviour of other people …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 141
How we form impressions of people ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
Some errors in forming impressions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
How we make judgments and decisions about other people ……………………………………………………………………………………… 143 Social Perception ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
Social perception ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
How social perceptions are formed and changed ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
How we select information about others ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
What some problems and issues in forming impressions of people and situations are …………………………………………………… 145 What the relationship between attribution, stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination is ………………………………………………… 146
Adolescent Development: socio-emotional domain ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146
What the process of socio-emotional development in adolescence is …………………………………………………………………………. 146
How we explain our social behaviour …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
Self-understanding ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 147 What self-concept is …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..147
How we develop a self-concept …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
How we change a self-concept ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148 How gender influences self-concept …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149
What the cultural influences on self-concept are…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
Self-concept …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
What a self-concept is ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
How the self-concept develops ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152 What influences the development of a self-concept ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 153
How important your self-concept is……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155
What we do when our self-concept is threatened ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
Culture and the Self ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
What culture means ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158 The influence does culture have on self-concept…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
How your cultural background influences your general health and outlook on life ………………………………………………………. 160
Gender and the Self …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
What gender means …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
How a gender identity develops ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161 What the differences between the genders are ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163
What the socio-cultural influences on gender development are …………………………………………………………………………………. 166
Self-schemas and Identity ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
How we represent knowledge about ourselves ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167
How self-identity develops…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167 The process of identity development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
What influences the family have on identity ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
What the socio-cultural influences on identity development are ……………………………………………………………………………….. 170
How gender influences identity development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
Identity Management ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171 How our behaviour change in social situations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
Mass Media …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
What defines the mass media ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
How viewing violence on television or in movies – and now in video games – affect the way we behave ………………………… 175
Influence the media has on developing aggression and violence, especially in children ………………………………………………… 176 Issues and challenges in adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 176
Role nutrition play in healthy adolescent development ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 177
The two main types of eating disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 177
Roles genetics and the environment play in eating disorders ……………………………………………………………………………………. 178
The issues and challenges involved with teen suicide ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
Looking through the eyes of the systems of supports ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180
What importance the family is in adolescent development ………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
How to resist peer pressure ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
The educational issues and challenges to be addressed in adolescence……………………………………………………………………….. 183
The influence culture has on interpersonal relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183 Action research in adolescent development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………185
Suggested Research LESSONs and Issues ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
Perspectives on adolescent development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 191 Key issues and questions in developmental psychology related to adolescent development …………………………………………… 192
How each of the six theoretical perspectives on human development explains adolescent development ………………………….. 194
Sigmund Freud ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
Erik Erikson …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
Cognitive Child Development Theories ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
Behavioral Child Development Theories ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198
John Bowlby ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
Albert Bandura ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 199
Lev Vygotsky ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
Development in Early & Middle Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
Development in Late Adulthood …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
Darling’s Spiritual Growth Paradigm …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205

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