Managing Business Research And Development/Manage Business Research And Development

Managing Business Research And Development/Manage Business Research And Development


  • Introduction of the Unit of Learning / Unit of Competency

This unit, exposes the trainee to managing a business research and development. The trainee will learn how to write a good statement of a problem and be exposed to the processes of formulating statement of the problem. For example the trainee should clarify the problem and explain why it is urgent to solve the problem and specify the gaps that need to be filled. For the establishment of the research problem, the trainee needs to carry out the needs and demands of the society, gather customer’s feedback concerning the products and services being offered, develop a budget plan so as to prepare financially, develop research methods whether quantitative or qualitative, identify research tools like questionnaires, interviews, observations, case studies or any other tool, develop a hypothesis which will guide their research, collect, analyze and finally present and report your findings by the use of graphs, charts, pictures and any other appropriate method.


This course adds some knowledge to the learner on how to get the answers to most of business problems, get relevant information concerning the product that is in market so as to make a valid decision concerning the product or service, and it will also enrich the trainee’s knowledge on market research. In addition, it will also promote cooperation by working with one another. It will also enable the learners to offer a quality service because of the information you are going to get.


2.2  Performance Standard

By the end of the training the learner should be able to identify research problems in accordance with the business needs assessment findings, develop research plan in accordance with research activities, conduct research process in accordance with the research plan, approximate research budget in accordance with research problem and organizational budget, identify research tools and equipment in accordance with research requirements, analyze business research using appropriate methods and document the findings in accordance with organizational business performance, market demands and organizational policy.


2.3  Learning Outcomes

2.3.1  List of Learning Outcomes

  1. Establish research problem
  2. Develop research plan
  3. Conduct business research
  4. Analyze business research finding
  5. Document business research findings


2.3.2  Learning Outcome No. 1. Establish Research Problem

  • Learning Activities



Learning Outcome #No. 1. Establish Research Problem
Learning Activities Special Instructions
Identify research needs from a company of interest Write a business research problem Facilitate identification       by the instructor  Information Sheet No. 2/LO1 Introduction

The first step in marketing research is to establish the problem that exists. This learning outcome intends to enable the trainee to establish how to identify a problem from which to build a marketing research.. The main purpose of a establishing a research problem in the marketing context is to establish customers need, inform decision makers, identify an opportunity or unravel a threat to business performance. Establishing a research problem is a process that entails conducting a business research need, gathering customer feedback and establishing what the problem or opportunity for the business is.


Definitions of key terms

Research problem: Is a question of concern that can be answered through the collection of data. Business research problem: this is the issue that has triggered a businessman to carry out a research on it and then try to come up with the solution.

Customer feedback: is the opinion of the customer that can be constructive or destructive.

Research needs: are the necessities that drive a research

Business needs assessment: this is evaluating the worthy of the needs that need to be researched on.


Conducting a Research Need

The need for marketing research is a critical process in business growth that should be initiated by the management of decision makers within an organization. Once they have identified the need for research is when a researcher is invited in helping define the research problem. Important to note is that not all business problems require research. If the problem can be solved using subjective information then one will not require to conduct research. If it cannot be solved subjectively then a researcher is invited.


Market research need can be identified in a business when:

There is a decision problem

During this period the manager is not certain of what course of action will  help in accomplishing specific business objective. This can happen when;

Ineffective marketing mix this can be experienced in product, price, promotion or distribution problems

Uncontrolled change in the environment: for instance new safety laws, increase in direct competition)

Change in situational factors: such as increased customer demand for quality or satisfaction.


Decision Opportunity

This is a situation whereby a company market performance has significantly improved by undertaking new activities or revising practices. This situation usually invites customer demanding for higher quality requiring the company to improve its image in the customer eyes. This can result in quality oriented customers that will require secondary/ primary data to keep maintaining quality and satisfaction


Market Performance symptoms

These are conditions that signal presence of problem or opportunity. Often the manager will not be able to make decision using symptoms/ signs. For example a decline in sales volume that follows a 10% decrease in unit price of a certain product is not a problem but rather a symptom of a problem yet to be identified. In such a situation the manager require independent information on what is happening and its consequences. Research could take place at this stage or one can use accurate information systems that monitor traditional market performance measures and other scientific principles in explaining the opportunity or problem indicated by the market performance symptom.


Figure 1: The marketing research process


Gathering Customer Feed back

Gathering Customer feedback is a process of obtaining customer opinion on a product or service. This process is helpful in understanding consumer behavior and needs on particular products or services. It is a useful process that help in addressing customer challenges that needs to be solved, provides a company opportunity to improve on product or service, create a new product/ service as well as add new functionality.

Customer feedback are gathered through various technique depending on the product development lifecycle. Generally a product has three phases of development that is

  • Ideal Phase
  • Initial development phase
  • Ongoing Improvement

The Table below provides techniques/ methods used in gathering customer feedback as categorized by product development phases


Table 1: Customer Gathering Feedback Techniques/Methods

Idea Phase
Ideas portal Ideas portal is a web based interface that allows customers to submit ideas. Customers can also view other customer’s ideas and comment or vote. This technique is used by product mangers to give continuous feedback and customer experience. The manger can use this platform to respond to customer need by ranking and prioritizing their needs according to its value to the business. This method is useful in improving sales of a new product.
Interviews This is face to face or mail interaction between customer and business personnel using questionnaire or interview schedule. Questions of how and why of a product are asked to customer using a particular product. The manager can go further and ask where the product is not meeting the needs of the customers. This method is used in getting response on customer experience, opinion, attitude and perceptions about a product. The techniques can further be used in validating assumptions.
Diary Studies This method involves self-reporting on customer activities. This method takes long as customers regular interval are used to create an activity long of thoughts and behavior. It is used in answering questions like how do customers use a certain product.


Focus Groups A focus group consist of interviews conducted in a small group of people whose reactions are studied in guided or open discussions. These groups are selected from diverse Groups demography to ensure unbiased data. The goal of the discussion is to determine the reactions that   will be   expected from a larger population on perceptions, opinions, and attitudes towards a certain product or service.

During the session, questions are asked in an interactive setting where customers are free to talk openly with other participants. During the focus group, product managers or other researchers, take notes or record the session for later analysis.

Techniques used for Initial development
Usability Testing The method of usability testing is used to measure the product’s capacity to meet its intended purpose. A usability test usually involves creating a realistic situation where customers perform a list of tasks using your product. It can be used for observational findings that identify design features that are easy or hard to use or capture metrics such as task completion rates.

No matter what you are testing during a usability session, product managers and other observers should watch and take notes as the customer completes the assigned tasks. The goal of this type of method is to observe how customers function in a realistic manner. This allows problem areas within your product to be identified.

To assist with the session, scripted instructions, prototypes, and other questionnaires are used and will help keep the session focused to ensure the right data is being collected.

A/B testing A/B testing is used to identify changes to a web page that increase an outcome of interest. For example, two versions of a web page are compared. They are identical except for one variable. The variable could be words, images, or other layout aesthetics. The A/B test will determine which version of the web page is more effective. The benefits of A/B testing are that it can be performed continuously on almost anything.
Ongoing Improvement
Customer success Customer success are insights provided by the team interacting with customers. This team is likely to understand customers’

problems better than anyone. Managers can use this method to


  tap into this knowledge by helping customer success teams answer calls or provide support. Doing so will give you a direct line to your customers and you will have the opportunity to get whatever feedback you may need. This should be done on a regular basis to provide continual feedback and understand what is important to customers.
User forums These are online discussion sites where members can hold focused conversations in the form of posted messages. This method is the most cost effective where customers share ideas on how to improve products / services. Using this method customers can also make feature requests, or openly discuss on how they have used your product in a unique, unintended way. Using this technique through reading and engaging with customers, product managers can better understand the problems that need to be solved.
Analytics Analytics are used, look across aggregate data sets or break things down to individual users. This technique is important in tracking customer’s behavior. Using it the manager is able to understand the path each customer takes and how they are using the product. By understanding the true actions taken by customers the manager gets a better understanding of what needs to be built to make improvements.
Surveys Surveys is a low cost scalable way that allows business managers to poll customers and get their opinions. Survey data can help product managers turn assumptions into facts and support or disprove a hypothesis. Understanding how you want to use the data will help you properly structure the survey.


Customer feedback can be obtained through

  • Hanging out with sales team and interacting with customers while selling
  • Sending SMs to customer with specific questions (one can use bulk SMS)
  • Use internet for online feedback (Facebook, twitter, etc)
  • Receiving calls at customer care desk
  • Field visit to the potential customers businesses (stalls etc)
  • Factors to consider while selecting method for gathering Customer Feedback
  • Research Objective
  • Research Scope
  • Time


Establishing Business Research problem

Establishing a business research problem is a process that enables manager and marketing researcher answer the question of what really is the problem. This process is important and hence a huge effect on research effects and overall performance of the business. The process of establishing a research problem starts by the manager facing a dilemma or problem in the business. This can be evidenced in low sales volume, reduced number of customer, increased lending than cash sales, etc. Once such occurs in the business the question of what is happening automatically starts lingering in minds of the managers as well as people around the business.










Figure 2: Research Problem Process




The above figure demonstrates the process that a manager should undertake once they face dilemma in their business. To properly define a business problem four elements are to be considered. These are

  • The business environment:
  • Objective of the business management/ decision makers
  • Alternative Course of Action
  • Consequences of alternative action


To establish a business research question one would ask the following questions;

  • Have the decision makers / management framed an initial question and looked at the alternatives clearly?
  • Is there an agreement or an acceptable criteria among the management and decision makers on the research problem?
  • What consequences would a wrong decision bring upon the business?
  • Is there a serious disagreement among the team members on the choice of research alternative and their adoption?


Key questions to ask when establishing Research Problem

  • While establishing a research problem one should ask the following questions
  • What is the main issue is it low sales volume, is it high demand than supply, is it increased customer complain
  • What could be the cause of the
  • What solution are there in solving the problem
  • If the problem is not solved what will happen to the business
  • Why should I conduct a market research (this brings out the objective)


Steps in the formulation of a research problem


  • Specify the Research Objectives

Objectives are the targets that need to be achieved at the end of the study. They should be SMART that is, Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time bound. It helps the decision makers evaluate the research questions the project should answer as well as the research methods the project will use to answer those questions. It also guides the researcher to remain within the scope of the research and be focused. The researcher should have two or three clear goals for purpose of focus and relevancy.


·         Review the Environment or Context of the Research Problem

The researcher will identify the environmental variables that may affect the research project and begin formulating different methods to control these variables. Research can be affected by other intervening variables so it is wise to identify in advance and device methods of controlling them.


·         Explore the Nature of the Problem

This can be achieved through carrying out interviews, observation or any other method of inquiry on your customers to establish the nature of the problem. A researcher needs to consider the consumers of your research product, sellers, expertise to provide any information that you might require


Identify alternative Course of action

In this phase the researcher identifies available course of action to counter the problem. Then they generate possible course of action paying attention to how the various factors relate or affect each other or the business.


·         The Consequences of Alternative Courses of Action

In any one or more projects, there are always consequences that may require a course of actions. A researcher needs to spell out the anticipated consequences in the course of the research and communicate the possible outcomes of various courses of action taken.


·         Factors to consider while establishing research problem

Avoid biasness by ensuring all research objectives are known and are well understood by the management and researching team. One can do this by asking the decision makers what outcome they expect from the research

Avoid vague research problems that are not objective

Research problems can be generated from practice, but must be grounded in the existing literature, statistics from local, national or international context.



Marketing has become a more challenging task for today’s dynamic business environment. Marketing mangers face challenge in providing customers with the right product, at the right time and place and at the right price. To solve this establishing the research problem come in handy in ensuring marketers understand the problem develop a research plan and gather customer feedback.  Self-Assessment

  1. Business and market Research is something that people undertake in order to find out things in a systematic way, thereby increasing their True/False
  2. Market Research is a multi-stage process and will involve both reflecting on and revising stages already undertaken and forward planning. True/False
  3. Market Research is just collecting facts or information with no clear purpose.


  1. Marketing research can be prompted by the following situation, which of the following situation cannot warrant a market research?
    1. When the manager is not certain of what course of action will help in accomplishing business objective
    2. When business has improved performance due to undertaking new activities
    3. There is a decline in sales volume that follows a 10% decrease in unit price of a certain product
    4. When the business operations are flawless
  2. Define the following terms as used in marketing?
    1. Research needs


  1. Customer feedback
  2. Business research problem
  1. Discuss the various procedures one will follow to establish business problem
  2. Describe components of a good business research problem
  3. A radio station has lately experienced been experiencing few listeners. Analyze the business problem and write a problem statement that they could to conduct a marketing
  4. Describe techniques a company can use in gathering customer feedback for the business
  5. Identify Key elements of a research plan
  6. Identify product or service within your locality, write down statement of the problem and make a presentation to class  Tools and equipment’s for the specific learning outcome

  • Computer connected to internet
  • Stationeries like books
  • Tablet connected to internet
  • Smart Phones  References


  1. Hair, , Bush, R., & Ortinau, D. (2000). Marketing Research: A practical approach for the new millennium. USA : McGraw Hill.
  2. Orodho et (2017). Quantitative and qualitative Research Methods. Nairobi


2.3.3Learning Outcome No. 2. Develop Research Plan Learning Activities

Learning Outcome #No. 2. Develop Research Plan
Learning Activities Special Instructions
Prepare the cost for marketing research for a company of interest Demonstration by use of old samples used earlier of research tools, equipment and materials such as questionnaire Develop hypothesis to be tested for a market research of choice Develop a research schedule Provide sample of research tool. Organize groups for demonstration purposes  Information Sheet No. 2/LO2 Introduction

This learning outcome will enable the learner to develop a research plan. It will entail identification of research locale and target population, determining research cost, selection of methods and development of tools, equipment and material to be used in the research. The trainee will also develop hypothesis and research schedule.


Definitions of key terms

Research Plan: Is a short document, which sets out initial thoughts on a research project in a logical and concise manner. It is a concept paper which outlines your research and how you plan to do it. It consists of the research question, the hypotheses aims and objectives and research design. It forms the basis on which a detailed research proposal may be developed.


Target Population: This is the total group of participants from which the sample might be drawn.

Research Methods: Refers to the manner in which a researcher would like to conduct his research. These can either be qualitative or quantitative or mixed. Quantitative methods examine numerical data and often require the use of statistical tools to analyze data collected.



Identifying geographical area and research population

In marketing the geographical area is the locality in which the business operates or where customers come from. This can be a city, country, region or global. Research population is the entire number of customers that benefit from a product/ service.

  • Target population could be
  • Suppliers
  • Customers
  • Sellers

An example is the geographical area for Safaricom is Kenya. This is where Safaricom operates thus creates products and services fit for Kenyans who are its target population.

A target population for marketing are the intended group that a particular service or product is intended for.

To identify geographical and target population one needs to answer the following questions

  • What are its relevant segmentation dimensions
  • How big is it?
  • Where is it?

For market research purpose various techniques can be used in identifying target population Census: this is a preferred action for small population. Using census the researcher attempts to questionnaire observe all members of a defined target population in a market.

The researcher could sample a subgroup of the entire population. Data obtained from such a population should be representative, reliable and general to the entire population. To do this the researcher must adopt a sampling plan which will serve as a guide to defining appropriate target population. The plan entails identifying possible respondents and establishing procedural steps for obtaining the required sample.

One could use the following questions as a guide to formulating a sample guide Sampling plans can be classified into two

  • Probability: Each member of the defined target has an equal known chance of being drawn in the sampling plan. Simple random sampling is used in obtaining sample population for the
  • Non Probability: This is sample plan eliminates the true assessment of sampling error existence and limit the generalizability of any information to larger group of people other than that group which provided original


Identification of geographical location and target population is important in controlling data quality and costing for research.


Determining cost for business marketing research



Is important for one to consider the cost of a business research before engaging in it. The cost should be financially feasible and beneficial to the business in terms of what problem it would solve.

Factors to consider while determining cost for business research.


  1. Number of particulars to be targeted .In this one needs to consider if they are targeting current or potential customer, the cost for current customers might be lower than for potential customer.
  2. What problem does the market research aim to resolve
  • Participants location :is it within the country or are spread out to other countries or regions
  1. Resources involved in building a representative sample from which to More specific pool are harder to reach and have higher costs.
  2. Data collection method eg. Using interviews for which a country would be more
  3. Research team involved. If you will be hiring professionals then the cost would be more costly.
  • Reporting requirements .for gathered and analyzed data, different reports can be generated for different users such as Sales, product development, marketing, customer service ,technical support


Sample of marketing research cost plan

Table 2: Sample Market research Cost Plan

Proposed research cost  
Items Cost
Developing research tools 13,000
Sample design and Plan 5,000
Data collection 15,000
Field transport  


Enumerators Lunch  
Coding and pre data analysis costs 15,000
Cleaning and coding  
Data entry  
Tab development  
Computer programming  
Data analysis and interpretation 10,000
Written report and presentation cost 8,000
Total Research Marketing Cost 66,000





  • Estimate resources required-this could be financial resources, human, time, and technology
  • Consider timelines required for marketing research prospect .This will depend on resources sizes of the target population and geographical location of

One should also consider


  • Research approaches (observational, survey, experiments
  • Contact methods (mail, telephone, personal interview, online)
  • Sampling plan (who, how many, how chosen)


Research methods in marketing

There are various methods that one could use in conducting market research. However there are two fundamental approaches that can be used in gathering raw data for marketing purposes. These methods include asking questions or observations.

Asking questions method can be further be categorized into two qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative market research is used to explore purpose. This approach focuses on customer’s opinions, attitude towards products or services. This method is used when the target participants are few and no statistical methods are applied. For such focus groups, in- depth interviews and projective tools are used in collecting the required information.

Quantitative marketing research approach on the other hand is used in drawing conclusions for a specific problem. This method is used o test hypothesis and uses random sampling for large population. This method can further be categorized into experimental and non-experimental. Experimental marketing research is used to test preferences and obtain features of a product that is attractive to the customers. Surveys and questionnaire are the main tools used in this approach.


Observational method is used to observe social phenomenon in their natural setting and draw conclusion. Market observation can be across sectional where observation are made at one time or longitudinally where observation occur over several periods and in phases. Techniques used in observation include product use analysis, test marketing and purchase laboratories.


Tools equipment’s and materials for marketing research

Depending on the research methods one is using, self-administered surveys, personal interviews, computer simulations, telephone interview and focus groups discussions are some of the tools marketing researchers could use to collect data.

Developing a marketing research hypothesis

A research hypothesis is a tentative prediction of outcome of the results which is going to be proven by the findings of the research.


Illustrations of Research hypothesis and null hypothesis

Research hypothesis: “market demand is affected by commodity supply in the market”


Null hypothesis “market demand is not affected by commodity supply in the market” Example of a table used in carrying out research


Marketing research schedule


This is a work plan that clarifies what is to be done and when. This outlines research activities to be done and timelines. A marketing research schedule is important in ensuring timely research outcomes.


Steps for developing marketing Research Plan

Step 1 – Articulate the research problem and objectives. Step 2 – Develop the overall research plan.

Step 3 – Collect the data or information from the field

Step 4 – Analyze the data or information using appropriate methods Step 5 – Present or report the findings.

Step 6 – Use the findings to make take an action.




Appropriate research plan enables the researcher carry out the research and achieve accurate results. Research planning entails identifying market target population, selecting of methods and tools to be used and outlining the cost of conducting the study. A schedule of what is to be done when and who is also prepared during research planning. This is helpful in ensuring that all resources required for the study are availed and the research process is executed smoothly.  Self-Assessment

  1. The following form the target population for a business marketing research which one is not
    1. Customers
    2. Suppliers
    3. Employees
  2. Explain the meaning of the following terms used in marketing
    1. Geographical area
    2. Target population
    3. Research methods
    4. Business research schedule


  1. Hypothesis testing starts with an assumption that a researcher makes about a sample This assumption is called a hypothesis. True/False
  2. Null hypothesis is always expressed in an equation form, which makes a claim regarding the specific value of the True/False
  3. When the null hypothesis is found to be true, the alternative hypothesis must also be True/False
  4. Level of significance is also known as size of the rejection region or size of the critical True/False
  5. For making a decision regarding acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis, a researcher has to determine a logical value that separates the rejection region from the acceptance True/False
  6. Define and explain the various types of hypothesis used in marketing
  7. Discuss research common research methods used by marketing researchers?
  8. A telecommunication company wants to conduct a national wide survey on its service usage among the customers. The company offers a range of five services.
    1. Which ,methods will you use in collecting data on customers usage and attitude towards the service offered by the company
    2. Which equipment and materials will you required to carrying out this research
    3. Prepare a budget for this research project
    4. Explain the main elements one should have in the research plan  Tools, Equipment, Supplies and Materials for the specific learning outcome

  • Computer
  • Stationeries
  • Tablet
  • Internet
  • Smart phone  References


Hair, J., Bush, R., & Ortinau, D. (2000). Marketing Research: A practical approach for the new millennium. USA : McGraw Hill.


Orodho et al. (2017). Quantitative and qualitative Research Methods. Nairobi



2.3.4  Learning Outcome No. 3 Conduct Business Research

  • Learning Activities
Learning Outcome #No. 3. Conduct Business Research
Learning Activities Special Instructions
Prepare data collection tool for marketing Divide students into groups
research for your institution. assign roles of respondents
Conduct    a    simulation    in    groups    to and interviews   for   a   data
demonstrate data collection for a particular collection simulation
research assignment.  Information Sheet No. 2/LO3 Introduction

This learning outcome intends to enable the trainee to identify tools, equipment’s and materials for marketing research. The trainee will also carry out a reconnaissance, collect business research data according to research schedule. This is an important process in ensuring that marketing researchers are able to collect accurate reliable and valid data to be used in solving business problem or informing on critical business decisions.


Definitions of key terms

Reconnaissance: This is a pre-visit conducted to the area of study prior to the main research to acclimatize a trainee to the geographical characteristics of a particular area.

Business research data: This is raw information relating to business. It includes information on sales, pricing availability of products, competitors etc.

Research schedule: These are set of questions a researcher asks to answer objectives of a particular business problem. They be presented in form of tables or forms where one is required to fill in the spaces answers for the questions asked.


Conducting a Reconnaissance

This is a process of carrying out a preliminary study before the actual study. It is important in establishing reliability of instruments to be used and countering any challenges that could affect data collection. Reconnaissance is carried out in a nearby location that shares similar characteristics with the actual study locale.


Collecting Business Research Data

There are two main ways one can collect business research data. This is by observing or asking questions. Table 2 below illustrates data collection tools and description of the tool.



Table 3: Data Collection tools

Data collection tools Description
Trained observer Use of highly skilled person who uses sense (sight, hearing Smell, touch and taste to observe and record customer behaviours. train observers could collect data as mystery shoppers or traffic counter.
Mechanical devices Data could also be collected using technology devices such as security cameras, vide taping equipments , scanning devices or mobile phone in case of Mpesa purchasing
Trained interviewers This is data collection using highly trained people who ask respondents specific questions an accurately record responses. This could also be done by use of tablet. Such data can be collected using telephone, tablets, paper and pen or face to face interview
Automated devices This is data collection using high tech devices such as automated telephone interviews , computer s=disk mail surveys , electronic mail surveys ; or internet surveys
Direct self- administered questionnaires In this type of data collection survey instruments such as direct mail surveys, group self- administered surveys are used where the customers serves the role of both the interviewer and respondent.


Tools used in data collection

  • Telephone interviews

This is collection of data through a telephone conversation with the respondent

Advantages of telephone interviews:

-It saves cost and time.

-It is very easy accessing people through the phone.

Disadvantages: Captures fewer respondents as compared to face-to-face interview


·         Online surveys

Mostly preferred because of advancement of technology also because the response time is quick.


  • It is least expensive as one can reach many people all over the
  • An online survey design, can be stored easily, revised and reused as needed from time to


·         Face to face interviews

Collecting data through a face-to-face conversation with the respondents.


  • This method is one of the most flexible ways to gather data and gain trust and cooperation from the
  • In addition to that, interviewing respondents in person means their body gestures can be observed as well like dislikes and discomforts
  • Respondents have more time to consider their It is also easier to maintain their interest and focus for a longer period.

·         Blog and social networks

This is an important data collection tool which are used in collecting customer opinions without using survey or interview. Company blogs provide businesses with immediate feedback on their product and services. Companies use google alerts and technorati to find out what customers are saying about their products and services. Social networks like twitter, facebook offer features that allow customers to browse for customer or potential customers for their products /services.


Factors to consider when conducting business data collection

  • Research schedule
  • Research ethics such as informed consent, maintaining customer privacy,


Sample of questionnaire


Leadership Styles and implementation of service delivery strategies in County government

A five ordered response level scales will be used which are 5 = Strongly Disagree, 4 = Disagree, 3 =Neutral, 2=Agree, 1= Strongly Agree.



Table 4: Research schedule

Statement SA A N D SD
1. The County government has a

policy on leadership style

2. Workers are free to make most decisions without consulting their


3.    Authoritative leadership helps

management to implement service delivery in County government

4.    Workers are free to air their

grievances to the top management



The research methods fall into three types of research categories, which are Qualitative Research, Quantitative Research and mixed method


Illustration on market research process

Figure 3: Market research process



A researcher has a time frame for conducting a research. It is good to conduct a pre-visit to the place so as to familiarize him/herself with the place. He should adhering to the research schedule and plan. The researcher should try to use primary data so as to get accurate information than secondary sources  Self-Assessment

  1. Research can be categorized as qualitative and (chose the correct option)
    1. Only option b is true now choose the correct option.
    2. Only statement a is
    3. Both option A and B are true
    4. Neither statement is true
  2. “A formulation regarding the cause and effect relationships between two or more variables, which may or may not have been “Which one of these does it define?


  1. Secondary


  1. Which one of the following is a data collection method?
  1. The case
  2. The
  3. The


  1. Which one of these is NOT normally associated with quantitative data?
  1. Researchers views of high
  2. Analysis begins as data are
  3. Analysis guided by standardized


  1. Which one of these is NOT normally associated with qualitative data?
  1. Pie charts.


  1. A study is based on 30 people (across three focus groups). What type of study is this?
  1. Quantitative
  2. Questionnaire
  3. Qualitative
  4. Structured


  1. A study is based on 1000 people interviewed face to face in shopping What type of study is this?
  1. Self-completion
  2. Qualitative
  3. Ethnographic
  4. Questionnaire


  1. Which one of these studies is least associated with construct validity?


  1. Which tool is appropriate for collection data from a national wide survey of 10000 customers
    1. Questionnaire
    2. Interview schedule
    3. Focused Group discussion


  1. What is meant by the following terms
  1. Research plan
  2. Reconnaissance
  • Research schedule


  1. What are the main methods used in collecting data in market research?
  2. What ethical issues should a researcher consider when conducting a market research?
  3. A juice company has lately been faced by decline in sales of it orange flavor. You have been tasked to conduct a survey to establish customer preference attitude and perception towards the company juice The assignment is to take 21 days.
    1. Prepare a research schedule for this exercise
    2. Prepare an estimate budget for this exercise
    3. Explain and justify data collection methods you will use for his exercise


  1. You are required to conduct seven (7) interview from women in shopping Centre to determine their opinion on available open air hotels. Develop the interview schedule, estimate its validity, collect data and hence write two page report  Tools, Equipment, Supplies and Materials

  • Computer
  • Stationeries
  • Tablet
  • Internet References


Hair, J., Bush, R., & Ortinau, D. (2000). Marketing Research: A practical approach for the new millennium. USA : McGraw Hill.


Orodho et al. (2017). Quantitative and qualitative Research Methods. Nairobi


2.3.5  Learning Outcome No. 4Analyze Business Research Finding Learning Activities

Learning Outcome #No. 4. Analyze Business Research Finding
Learning Activities Special Instructions
Clean and code data for analysis Provide     data     set     for
Using excel or SPSS conduct analysis for data analysis      and     analysis
set packages     software     eg
  SPSS and excel


Information Sheet No 2 /LO4 Introduction

This learning outcome intends to enable the trainee to analyze business data obtained from customers. To do this the trainee will be required to identify tools for data analysis, clean and code data, enter data to specific software for analysis and finally analyze data using SPSS.STATA, Excel or any other software. Analysis of research findings is an important exercise that enables the team to summarize and provide meaning for data obtained from the field.


Definitions of key terms

Analysis tools: these are the tools used to analyze data. They include means, frequencies, percentiles and others. Data collection and analysis tools are defined as a series of charts, maps, and diagrams designed to collect, interpret, and present data for a wide range of applications and industries.

Data Analysis: Data analysis summarizes the collected data. It involves the interpretation of data gathered through the use of analytical and logical reasoning to determine patterns, relationships or trends so as to make valid conclusions and make an accurate decision.


Business analysis tools

Once data is ready for analysis one should consider analysis. This is the process of summarizing raw information into meaningful information. Here are several analytical tools used to support businessmen to perform a business analysis. Here are 10 most effective analytical tools used in analyzing process of a business that you can take into your account. There are two main techniques for data analysis

  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Inferential statistics


The following techniques are common in market research analysis

  • Factor analysis: this technique is used in understanding characteristics or priorities of a particular customer
  • Cluster analysis: This is used on homogenous This technique is important when a company wants to establish various customer segment.
  • Other techniques are conjoint analysis, multiple regressions and discriminate


Analysis of business research data Preparation of Data for Analysis

Once raw data has been collected the researcher performs several procedures before analyzing this data. Data preparation for marketing research should follow fives step approach which are validation, editing and coding of the data, Data entry, error dictation and data tabulation. Figure 3 provides a summary of the process


Data preparation is important in ensuring raw data are accurately converted to establish meaning and create value for the users.

Step 1: Data validation

This is concerned with determining the extent to which surveys, interviews or observation were conducted correctly free of bias and fraud. Information of respondents name, address telephone number are recorded during data collection are used in validation process. This is done to avoid curb stoning which in marketing refers to cheating and falsification of data. In this process 10 -30 completed interviews are targeted for call backs for data collected using telephone, mail, and door to door interviews. The respondents will be called back to verify their participation in the interview through short questions.

Validity check for

Fraud: Was the person actually interviewed. Was the person subjected to the research questions? This is done by asking same questions and checking if the respondent will provide similar answers.

Screening: This is used to determine if the respondents conducted were qualifies. A criteria of inclusion for the interview is used in this process. The criteria could be income level, recent purchase of product/brand, sex or age. A call back can also be used to do this.

Procedure: In marketing research it is crucial that data is collected according to a certain procedure. Eg when customers exit a retail shop, or inside the supermarket. A call back call in establishing that the research was conducting in the right setting is used in establishing validity of the procedures

Completeness: This check if all questions in the interview were asked. In some cases interviewers would ask only a few questions in the beginning and speed up to afew questions in the end of the interview. Other sections might remain unfilled or the interviewer might make up answers for these questions.

Courtesy: during call back the person validating might ask of the interviewer courtesy that is if the person was pleasant, the appearance and proper personality. this is useful to ensure that respondents were treated well and the information was collected in a positive way.


Step 2 data editing and coding

Editing is the process whereby raw data are checked for mistake during interview. This is done through a manual scanning. One looks out for

If the questions were asked properly. In case the questions were not properly asked, the respondent is contacted and asked the question in the right way

Were the answers properly recorded: This could be omission of digits in income or phone numbers?

Proper screening of questions: This process checks if the respondent was legible that is meets the inclusion criteria to participate in the research. One also checks for questions to be skipped following a response on the same.


Responses to open ended questions: These answers provide a greater insight into the research. One should establish that the open ended answers are exhaustive during editing judgment must be used in classifying responses.

Step 3: Coding Process

This is the process of grouping and assigning value to various responses from the survey instrument. One would label response using numbers form 0 -9. This process can be tedious and requires a researcher to plan and construct the instrument well. Coding is clearer in closed ended questions. Coding for open ended responses could be challenging for open ended questions as the answers of the information obtained might outweigh the coding. To code open ended questions one could

List all potential responses and assign values within the range of the responses and consolidate all similar response in one category.

Step 4: Data entry

This is a task that involve directly input of coded data into a specific software package that will be used for analysis. One could use computer using keyboard, light pen or a scanning device. Data collected y=using mobile support devices eg kobocollect does not require entering but exporting to analysis software. During data entry one should ensure that the data entered is free of error. This can be done through customizing software.

Step 5: Error detection

This is the process of checking for error in already entered data. An example in a particular field only code 1 and 2 should appear. However on routine checking you see

  1. This implies an error occurred during entry. Customized software will be conditioned to reject 3. One could also use a print preview to check for errors manually. Finally one could detect errors by producing data/column list for the entered data. This will enable one see where an entry error occurred and correct it using the original sheet.

Step 6: Data Tabulation

Tabulation is a process of counting number of observation that are classified into certain categories. Marketing applies two types of tabulation

One way tabulation Cross tabulation.

One way tabulation is used for single variable which shows number of respondents who responded to a particular question. This is then compared to number of variables being measured. This approach is used to establish non response, omissions, or wrong entries. A frequency distribution I generated showing missing data, valid percentage and summary statistics.

Cross tabulation is useful when analysis it wants to establish relationships between variables. This is commonly used in marketing. An example of cross tabulation for marketing is number of visits and amount of money spend at fast food business premise. Cross tabulation can be done using a variety of softwares and statistical packages. Spreadsheets such as Excel, Access, Lotus and Quattro Pro could be useful in this process. Statistical packages such as SAS, STAT and SPSS are also effective in producing cross tabulations.


Analysis of business research data

Once data is prepared and ready for analysis. The researcher need to review the objective to make decision on which type of analysis they will conduct.

Marketing researchers use basic and descriptive statistics to analyze data.


The following measures /techniques are used in analyzing marketing business data

Measure of central tendency Measure of dispersion Hypothesis testing

Measure of Relationships between variables


Measure of central tendency

Data can be analyzed by measuring the central tendency. This will involve calculation of the mean, mode and median. This technique allows a researcher to obtain frequency distribution of responses which is useful for providing basic or an overview of research information in a summary. SPSS and other statistical packages are designed to perform this type of analysis.


The mean is the average within the distribution. It is used when data is interval or ratio. It provides the information on average number of items within the study. Its formula is Mean=

where Xi= All values of the distribution of responses N=Number of valid responses



This is the value hat appears in a distribution more often. This represents the highest peak in a graph. It shows how many times something happens. This is useful as a measure for data that have been somehow grouped in categories. This measure is best for nominal data.



This is the meddle value of the distribution when arranged in an ascending or descending order. This measure is used for ordinal data


Measure of dispersion

Measure of central tendency does not tell the whole story about the distribution of data. An example is data on consumer attitude towards a new product could give mean , mode and median but cannot tell us similarity of customers opinion. To answer this one would need to measure dispersion. Dispersion is described using Range and standard deviation



This is a measure that define how spread out data is. It measures the distance between the smallest and largest value of variables under study. Range are used in measuring open ended questions eg


How much credit do they buy in a week? In this case the respondent would analysis range of the responses provided by

Range = XLargest – X Smallest

If the answer highest frequency was 20 and lowest was 5 then the range will be Range = 20-5

Range = 15


Standard deviation

This is used to describe the average distance of distribution values from the mean. If the standard deviation is large then the distribution of numbers do not fall close if it is small then the distribution of numbers is very close to the mean of distribution. Standard deviation is obtained by using following formula

Standard deviation =√∑(−̇)


Xi= Value of theIth respondent in the sample n= Sample size

x-= Mean


Measures of central tendency and dispersion are used in descriptive statistics which reveals also about the distribution of a set of numbers representing the answers to an item on a questionnaire. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency are useful to marketing researchers.


Hypothesis Testing

In most cases descriptive statistics is not enough in answering all questions. Markets sometimes would want to preconceive notions of existence of relationships. This preconception is what is called hypothesis which is based on marketing theory of previous market research.

An example of and hypothesis would be

Students buy more credit during the weekend than at the start of the week.

There are various hypotheses to be tested depending on how they were formulated


Independent versus related samples

These hypothesis are used when marketing researchers want to compare two groups. One compares means of two groups if they are from independent samples and if the samples are related.

An example of independent samples are:

Comparing mean of male and female student credit buyers. In such a case the researcher will compare the average number of male credit bough by male students to that purchased by female students.


Related samples: This is when the researcher compare mean within the same variables such as the average number of male students purchasing Safaricom credit to the average


number of male students purchasing airtel credit. In related sample the respondent are the same thus pair samples t- test is used in this analysis. This can be done using SPSS. Analyzing Relationship

There are different relationships that can be analysis by testing the hypothesis. This is relationship between two variables which is univariate or relationship between many variables which is bivariate.


Univariate Test of significance

In many situation marketing researchers will form hypotheses regarding population means based on sample data. This involves going beyond the simple tabulations incorporated ina frequency distribution and calculation of averages. Univariate tests of significance involve hypothesis testing using one variable a time.


Example of univariate Hypothesis test

In many situation marketing researchers will want to form hypotheses regarding population means based on sample data. This involves going beyond simple descriptive analysis. Univariate hypothesis testing uses one variable at a time. This can be done using;

T distribution: this is a symmetrical bell shaped distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of. t distribution is used when the sample size is small less than 30 and the population standard deviation is unknown.

Z distribution: this is a test that is used to measure population proportion.


Bivariate hypothesis tests

In some cases the marketing researcher will want to compare mean of one group to another group. Eg when one wants to determine if there is any difference between older and younger buyers of new cars because of its features. This will require one to deal with more than one variable. Here the researcher will use the following methods;

T test for comparing two means

Z test for comparing two mean/ two proportions Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Conducting F test

There are various types of variance in ANOVA F test and n –Way ANOVA


The following formula is used in testing for F test


F= ( )/( ℎ )


Larger F ratios imply significant difference between groups. The larger the F the more likely that null hypothesis will be rejected.

The second piece of information needed to examine statistical differences between groups in ANOVA is the degree of freedom. Degrees of freedom are adjustments made to different type of sums of squares in order to make them comparable. FD is calculated as the number of observations whose squares deviation are incorporated in the summing –up process minus the number of sample statistics calculated in the analysis.


To calculate df this is the formula Df total = (n-1)

n=Number of observation

To calculate

k= number of groups included in the analysis df within =( n-k)

n=Number of observations

k= Number of groups include in the analysis


n-   Way ANOVA

This point has been devoted to one way ANOVA. In a one way ANOVA there is only one independent variable. When a marketing researcher is interested in the region of the country where a product is sold as well as consumption pattern, they will have to use multiple independent factors to measure the interaction effect. Another situation when one will need to use n-way ANOVA, is when the study used experimental deigns. Where the researcher provides different groups in a sample with different information to see where their response change. E.g when you want to find out whether consumers prefer a humorous ad to a serious one and whether that preference varies by gender. The marketer will use n way ANOVA. N way ANOVA is similar to one way ANOVA but the mathematics are more complex. SPSs will help the marketer to perform the n way ANOVA.

Further reading for multivariate analysis can be done on MANOVA. When the sum square between group variation and the sum of statics Factors to consider when analyzing business research data

  • Nature of variable
  • How the variables relate to each other
  • What results do you want
  • Do you want to predict market trends
  • Do you want compare performance of products in a certain market
  • Do you understand consumer behavior

Data presentation

Analyzed data is presented using various tools. These are graphs, bar charts, pie charts, histograms and scatter plots. Below are samples of graphs that can be used in data presentation.


Figure 4: A Pie Chart

Figure 5: A Graph



The researcher should use the most appropriate tools for reliability and validity of the results achieved. The bar graphs and pie charts are mostly preferred because they are able to simplify information at a glance and the user is able to interpret the data such easily.  Self-Assessment

  1. Data analysis is defined as the:


  1. process to ensure that research data, digital and traditional, is stored in a secure manner to ensure that procedural controls are in place and adhered to in order to protect the integrity of data.
  2. Convention whereby research findings are prepared and disseminated to the scientific community.
  3. Process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.
  4. The process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense, recap, and evaluate
  1. Statistical analysis advice should be obtained at the stage of initial planning in a study:


  1. so that attribution of authorship can be decided
  2. so that conflicts of interest could be identified
  3. to better coordinate the selection of appropriate sampling methods and data collection instruments
  4. how data will be archived can be planned


  1. The chief aim of analysis is to distinguish between:
    1. an event occurring as either reflecting a true effect versus a one occurring by chance
    2. right from wrong
    3. quality control and quality assurance
    4. misrepresentation and plagiarism


  1. The following are techniques are used in analyzing descriptive data which one is
    1. Mean
    2. Mode
    3. T- test
    4. Variance
  2. Explain the following terms
    1. Data
    2. Analysis tools
    3. Data analysis


  1. Outline procedures that a researcher will used after obtaining data from the field before analysis?
  2. What is the difference between data validation, editing and coding?
  3. What is the importance of data analysis
  4. Explain the various techniques used by market researcher to analyze data
  5. Given a marketing research questionnaire, use your knowledge of developing codes to convert the questionnaire into a master code illustrating appropriate values for each response and question.
  6. The following data shows response of customers importance of buying product x in the house hold from 395 customers for the past 3 months period. The product manager want to obtain average number of times the product was purchased and the Use the data to calculate;
    1. Mean
    2. Mode
    3. Median
    4. Standard deviation



Response Frequency
Very important 25
Important 75
Somewhat Important 100
Somewhat Unimportant 89
Unimportant 65
Very unimportant 41
Total 395  Tools, equipment, supplies and Materials for the specific learning outcome


  • Computer
  • Stationeries
  • Tablet
  • Internet  References

  1. Mugenda,     &Mugenda,    A.    (2003).Research     Methods.Quantitative     and Qualitative Approaches Nairobi. Acts press.
  2. Kothari     (2003).    Research    methodology.Methods   and   techniques.New international Publishers jaipur India
  3. Orodho et al, (2017). Quantitative and qualitative Research Nairobi




2.3.6  Learning Outcome No. 5 Document Business Research findings

  • Learning Activities
Learning Outcome #No. 5. Document Business Research Findings
Learning Activities Special Instructions
Write a report for business research Provide data for report writing
findings   purpose     Information Sheet No 2 /LO5 Introduction

Business research findings report is an important document that help business owners and decision makers know the outcome and findings of the research on business problem. The report is necessary for decision making on development of new product, or identifying market opportunities to be explored. The report must be able to achieve four man primary objectives which is to effectively communicate the finding of the market research project, to provide interpretations of those finding in the form of sound and logical recommendations, to illustrate the credibility of the research project and to serve as a future reference document for strategic or tactical decisions. This learning outcome intends to enable the trainee write a report for business research findings. The trainee should be able to obtain tools for writing business research report, developing a business report and implementation of the report. Research report is a reliable source indicating all the details about a conducted research. It is most often considered to be a true testimony of all the work done to garner specificities of research.


Definitions of key terms


Business Research reports are recorded data prepared by researchers or statisticians after analyzing information gathered by conducting organized research, typically in the form of surveys or qualitative methods.


Report Writing: This deals, on reporting and discussing ones findings, deal with the core of the thesis. It consist of a number of chapters where by the researcher present the data that forms the basis of his/her investigation. In a thesis including publication, it will be the central section of an article.


Business report: It is a formal writing done by the researcher outlining the major steps taken to undertake his research up to the findings together with the recommendations made. It is prepared in accordance with the analyzed data and information.

The presentation and discussion of findings may follow an established conventions or the researcher’s argument may determines the structure.


Reports are usually spread across a vast horizon of topics but are focused on communicating information about a particular topic and a very niche target market. The main intention of research reports is to convey integral details about a study for marketers to consider while designing new strategies. Certain events, facts and other information based on incidents need to be relayed on to the people in charge and creating research reports is the most effective communication tool. Ideal research reports should be extremely accurate in the offered information with a clear objective and conclusion.

The various sections of a research report are:

  • Summary
  • Background/Introduction
  • Implemented Methods
  • Results based on Analysis
  • Deliberation
  • Conclusion


·         Report Writing Tools for Marketing

To write a business report the researcher must be armed with a computer output, statistics, questionnaire and other project related material. One should rely on original objectives and communicate how each part of the project is related in accomplishment of that objective.


·         Developing Business report

In developing business research report researcher should ensure that it is credible such that the report is accurate, believable and professional.

To achieve accuracy one ensure no carelessness mathematical errors or grammatical errors are included in the report. Believability will be achieved through clear and logical thinking, precise expression and accurate presentation of output. This will further be enhanced if the report is readable and the readers are able to understand. To achieve professional report one needs to organize the report in a good quality manner. This is achieved by making an outline of all major points and sequencing them as they appear before writing. One also needs to maintain reference status by acknowledging other peoples work.


·         Components of Research Report

Marketing research reports are unique in some way. This could be based on clients need, research purpose, study objectives etc. However there are common elements that are found in all business research report. These are

  • Title page
  • Table of content
  • Executive Summary
  • Research Objectives
  • Concise statement
  • Summary of Findings
  • Conclusion and recommendation
  • Introduction


  • Research method and procedures
  • Data analysis and findings
  • Conclusion and recommendation
  • Limitations
  • Appendixes

Title page: this section provides information on the subject of the report and name of the recipient, position and name of the organization. Other information that should be included in the title page should be employing organization, contacts names of people submitting the report and date.

Table of content: is a list that specifies the number of topics in a sequential order. All topics and their subsections with the pages will be shown here. Table and figure should also be presented in this section. This could be generated automatically using Word processor.

Executive summary: This is the most important part of the report. Company executives only read the report summary. Hence this section must present the major points representing a true picture of the entire document in a summary form. The executive summary should

  • Convey how and why the research was undertaken
  • What the findings were
  • What the findings mean for the reader
  • What future action to be taken

The research objectives should be as precise as possible and confined to approximately one page. Research purpose, questions along with hypotheses should be used explained. The methods used, sampling, research design and procedures should be explained in a paragraph. Findings should follow according to the study objectives. The executive summary closes with a conclusion that gives opinions based on the findings which are recommendation and conclusion which could be a paragraph.

Introduction; This section contain background information that enables the reader to understand the report. Definition of terms, relevant background, circumstances surround the study, scope, and the rationale for the study are presented here. Study objectives, questions, hypothesis, length and duration of the study. The introduction should answer the question of what is the report about, why was the research conducted, and what relationship does the current study does when compared to the past and where and when the study was.

Research method and procedure: this section presents:

What research design will be used?

What types of secondary data were used in the study?

If primary data were collected what procedures was employed and what administration procedures were employed

  • What sample and sampling process were used within this description This includes
  • How the target population was defined
  • What sampling units were used
  • How was the sampling list generated
  • How was the sample size determined
  • Was a probability or non-probability sampling plan employed


Data analysis and findings

This section presents the techniques and shows the output after analysis. Data results are discussed using tables, graphs figure etc. it is best practice that the graphs, tables and figure be properly labeled. Results should be interpreted according to the findings following objectives.

Conclusion and Recommendation

This section is derived from the finding section. Conclusion can be considered broad generalizations that focus on answering questions related to the research objectives. They are condensed pieces of information derived from the findings that communicate the results of the study to the reader.

Recommendation are generated by critical thinking. The task is one where he researcher must critically evaluate each conclusion and develop specific areas of application for strategic or tactical actions. Recommendation should focus on how the client can solve the problem at hand through the creation of competitive advantage


Research do not lack limitation. This could come from the sampling bias, financial limitation, time pressure, measurement errors and demand artifacts. Study could be limited to generalizability, weakness of scales as well as lack of sampling resources

Common problem researcher should avoid while writing the marketing research report Lack of data interpretation

Unnecessary use of multivariate statistics Emphasis on packaging instead of quality Lack of relevance

Placing too much emphasis on few statistics


Implementing Business research report

This is the process that ensures that research findings have been communicate do presented to relevant parties for action. Report shared are useless and do not justify why they could be done.

Before disseminating report researcher should ensure it is accurate so that it informs the managers in making the right decision. Reports can be disseminated to senior managers, financers and other decision makers for the purpose of implementation.

The presentation should be well organized by the content Various method are used in presenting market research results.

Traditional presentation methods include Chalkboards, Whiteboard and Overhead projectors could be limited for complex ideas. One can opt for computer based presentation applications which is more professional and transparent. This come with feature like video, sound, animation and text. Some of the computer packages to be used are PowerPoint, hypertext markup language to create web page which communicates to all the world.



In carrying out research, the most important section of a report is research methodology as it has all the required information. Research recommendations should be shared as per the regulation policy. Research can only be implemented with the right people thus the senior management company decision makers and other departmental managers need to be aware of the research findings. This can be done through proper writing and presentation for the research results. It’s important to note that implementation of the results can only be done if the results is organized and represented in a manner that can be understood by key business decision makers. Computer based techniques could be used.  Self-Assessment


  1. Executive summary should give a picture of all research findings in not more than 1 page True [ ]                                        False [  ]
  2. It is not necessary to include methods and procedures used in research in the market research report

True [ ]                                 False [ ]

  1. Applying computer support softwares in presentation provides correct market information for decision making than manual presentation using white

True [   ]                      False [ ]

  1. Outline key elements to include in a standard business research report
  2. Explain the main objectives of writing a marketing report after data
  3. What are the common problems associated with market research
  4. Explain tools that a market researcher could use in preparing market research findings?
  5. Using a resent research report prepare a PowerPoint discussion to present to a company management for decision making.
  6. Illustrate type of information you will provide while writing executive summary of business  Tools, equipment, supplies and Materials for the specific learning outcome

  • Computer
  • Stationeries
  • Tablet
  • Internet
  • Smart phones  References

Hair, J., Bush, R., & Ortinau, D. (2000). Marketing Research: A practical approach for the new millennium. USA : McGraw Hill.

Orodho et al, (2017). Quantitative and qualitative Research Methods. Nairobi

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